Sulla strada della Fisica Moderna - a virtual exhibition

Officially, the date beginning the Modern Physics is Planck's lecture in Berlin in December 1900, in which "quants" of energy are nomoinated for the first time. Quants created new Physics areas, like quantum mechanics and electrodynamics and changed our view, not only on Physics but on the Philosophy of Knowledge, bringing also new revolutionary applications, like lasers. >>

Pagina in costruzione, ci scusiamo per il lungo ritardo...
finora sono stati tradotti:
 Albert e Mileva
 Fermi e pesciolini d'oro
 BEC cioè caprone
 Vuoto affollato
Funambolo - guardia del corpo
Perché il cielo è blu?
Il ragno con tante zampe

Metodi di determinare il numero di Avogadro
La cattura degli elettroni e dissociazione nel DNA
Dilatazione del tempo

Please note: the form of this exhibition is "scherzo". Who does not like jokes, please read only texts written in "Courier" font
Comments, please sent to:

Description notes

Elenco di poster

List of posters

Physics Areas

a-tom, or by Demokryt in-divisible. Really? When "yes", when "no"?
doc A-tom, or in-dividual tajget

doc How to count atoms?

doc Atomic Force Microscopy

afm1 AFM - these are atoms on silicon surface
[Omicron NanoTechnology]
afm3 AFM - these are atoms on gold surface
[Omicron NanoTechnology]

afm2 The smalles inscription in the world (atom by atom)
[Omicron NanoTechnology]
afm4 Picture of tungsten needle in field emission microscope
[H. Haken i H.C. Wolf, Atomy i kwanty, PWN, 2002]

  itay Avogadro a Maciej (di Adam Mickeiwicz)
doc Avogadro's number determination
doc How to measure atoms?

links, sources, photo, more

Spectroscopy or ghost science

It begun from Sun spectrum, and today we can say what was eaten and drunk on the funeral feast of King Midas
Widmo ci±g³e ¶wiat³a bia³ego Za³amanie ¶wiat³a na diamencie Têcza These are "spectra",
i.e. ghosts...
Zachόd s³oñca nad miejscowo¶ci± Itea w Grecji u stόp Olimpu okladka-cd snieg

doc At the funeral feast of King Midas

doc How to weight an atom?

doc Mass spectroscopy

Mass spectrometer with magnetic deviation of Aston (1930)
. [Science Museum, Londyn]
aston-ne First observation of neon isotopes
[Aston 1920]
Spektrometr czasu przelotu Mass spectrometers in Slupsk
(more pictures

doc How does the laser work?tippetop

doc CO2 molecular laser laser [Science Museum, Londyn]
doc Laser ablation

doc How do the strawberies smell?

doc Proton transfer spectroscopy

doc How are you, Miss orchid?

doc Photoacoustic spectoscopy

links, sources, photo, more

Invisible amber amber
Studied for years, but named "electron", i.e. amber, only by J.J. Thompson

Original Crooks' tubes for studies of cathodic rays deviation in a magnetic field
[Science Museum, Londyn]
Original Crooks' tubes for studies of cathodic rays
[Science Museum, Londyn]
Original vacuum diode of Flemming
[Science Museum, Londyn]

doc Rays from cathode

doc First (and the only ?) elementary particle
Measurements of electron charge
doc Anty-electron
Electrons, DNA and the Evolution
Spectroscopy of electron collisions
La cattura degli elettroni e dissociazione nel DNA
Capture a moscito in flight atto-physics

links, sources, photo, more

Penetrating radation

Noticed casually, but studied on purpose by W. Röntgena, served to discover the DNA structure

First tubes for X-(Röntgen) rays
[Science Museum, Londyn]
Synchrotron - a modern source of X - rays
[DESY, Hamburg]
rontgen Early set-ups for Röntgen's rays
[Deutsche Museum, Monachium]

doc How DNA looks like? rna Sstructure of adenovirus RNA obtained by X-rays [Nature]

doc Super poisonbia³ko Röntgen's rays in biology - structure of proteins [DESY, Hamburg]
doc X-ray defectoscopy
links, sources, photo, more

Quantum Mechanics
Hipothesis of "quants", introduced by Planck, was found useful by Einstein for explnation of the photoelectric effect and for studies of hydrogen spectra. Almost, almost, without wave machanics

Black-body emission spectrum (lamp filament at 3000 K) (more here)

doc Planck and unwilled quanta

doc Ships in a harbour photovoltaic

doc Franck-Hertz experiment

Spectrum of an "energy-saving" lamp - quantification of energy levels in atoms

Security of insecurity

links, sources, photo, more

Wave Mechanics

What a falling drop has in common with the electron capture in a muriatic acid?



Time evolution of electron capture by HCl ...

doc Bohr and (not) his postulates fala kolista A standing circular wave Hear it !

doc Can a witch pass a wall? quantum scattering
Quantum scattering

doc Can one see electron orbitals?orbitals

links, sources, photo, more

Idrogeno – una storia senza fine
The simplest atom, brought the most surprises in Physics

doc A Swiss teacherhydrogen-spectrum

doc Sommerfeld: relativistic classicist

doc Dirac: classical relativicist

doc A Small-Sheep Shift

doc Lamb's experiment
doc Quantum Electrodynamics

Atomic Physics in strong electromagnetic fields
[Gesselshaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt]

links, sources, photo, more

XX Century = Einstein's Century
Four manuscripts - from March 12th to September 1st. A miracle? An explosion? Plagiarism? Or happy marriage?

itay Albert e Mileva wedding

doc Four manuscripts that changed the world

doc A cow-boy from Strzelno

doc Ether wind

doc Postulates of relativity

doc Quicker but tighter

doc Einstein: "A pur si muove"

links, sources, photo, more

Divide indivisible

In 1897, together with the "discovery" of electron, radioactivity emerges - atom has components!
doc Industrious PhD (she) student Future science candidates

Original instruments used by Joliot-Curie for artificial radiactivity studies
[Science Museum, Londyn]

Fortitous coincidence

rutherford Replica of Rutherford's apparatus with which he showed that alpha particles were helium nuclei. A copy made in Cambridge in 1998.
[Forum der Technic, Deutsche Museum, Monachium]

doc A particle from wax chadwick Original Chadwick's instruments for studies of neutrons [Deutsche Museum, Monachium]

doc Fermi e pesciolini d'oro

doc An expensive billiard wilson Wilson's chamber, for studies of particle paths [Science Museum, Londyn]

doc Faster and faster

doc Linear accelerators
doc Synchrotron in Trieste

First English synchrotron from Cambridge (1937)
[Science Museum, Londyn]

doc Pauli and n(o)eutrinos

doc Let's get to the islandwyspa Nuclear models

Does the world turn right? Celtycki kamien

How, on Tuesday, we broke the parity [A story by Leon Ledermann]

doc Does the world turn right (II)

links, sources, photo, more

Quarks and cheesei
6 quarks in 3 colors, and anty-quarks, and gluons, and leptons: poor God is getting a headache!

doc "Tree quarks for Muster Mark"

doc Proton & Co. [note]

doc Super-multiplets

doc Quarks almost the same, but the smells different ! [note]

doc Mésalliance

doc What mesons are? Charmionium chart

Hadrons in strong interactions [Gesselshaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt]

doc See quarks

A model of proton and neutron (metal cubes) show another feature of quarks:
there are inside, like two pictures on opposite walls,
but no one can get them out of the cubes .

doc Cheese in case-in quark

doc lepto Lights and heavies
doc Full center! - lepton tau taupair Lepton-tau story

doc What is leptons' mass?
doc What is quarks' mass?

doc Very heavy photons wtrack The first trace of W boson [CERN]

doc To fly, like higgs on LEP LHC Is this the first Higgs?

doc Cartesius' particles or Newton's fields ?

links, sources, photo, more

This and other (?) Worlds
And if we are more than "we" in the Universe? For sure, the dark mass dominates!

fot Other worlds

fot Radioastronomy
Black holes

A look back in time to the beginning of the Universe: more red the galaxy is, the elder its immage we get. [HUBBLESITE]
fot A strange star Crab's Nebula. krab [HUBBLESITE
How many planets are inhabited?
Probability calculations indicate: less than one!

Ziemia An Earth for men
Moon acrobat moon-acrobate

A double feather-blanket

Why does the CO2 molecule absorb heat ? co2-bug

links, sources, photo, more

From diode and trans-resistor to Internet

i.e. this wonderful, solid body

doc SUPER conductors

fot Semiconductors - i.e. Christmas discoveries

links, sources, photo, more

In-dividual or uni-formed?

  itay   BEC cioè caprone 

fot How Bose-Einstein condensate grows? What does it serve for?

Experimental set-up for Bose-Einstein condensation
[Universita di Pisa].

links, sources, photo, more

List of experiments, models and instruments:

(as shown during the exhibition in Gdansk 15-19.09.2003, at Polish Physical Society Congress)
  • Atoms:
  • Perrin's experiments:
    1. Sedimentation - a model: a suspension of microcristaline quarz (determination of Avogadro's number)
    2. Diffusion of oleic acid drop on water surface (determination of atom diameter) [ringraziamento a Dott. Romano Cainelli]
    3. Brown's movements (a drop of ink from jet printer in water)
  • Electrons:
    1. A piece of amber (electrostatics)
    2. Positrons - similar to electrons positron but different positron-a
    3. Ramsauer's experiments (transmission of electrons in Xe-filled w lamp) [courtesy prof. W. Tomin] ramsauer
    4. Crooks' tubes [PAP]
    5. Measurement of e/m ration in magnetic field (PASCO) [courtesy dr B. Kusz]
    6. Drift chamber for low-energy electrons (Townsend's experiment) [courtesy dr. J. Mechliñska-Drewko ] drift
  • Quantum Mechanics:
    1. Planck's box (temperature of the "radiation field") planck
  • Wave Mechanics:
    1. Waves on a rope
    2. Standing waves inside the "singing" bowl [Educational Innovations inc.]wasa2 wasa
  • Laser:
    1. He-Ne laser tube
    2. Ligh interference sun glasses - Littrow's grating sunglass
    3. Singing tube, excited by gas flame [Educational Innovations inc.]
  • Symmetry CPT:
    1. Celtic stone
    2. Venetian gondola gondola
  • Franck-Hertz's experiment:
    1. Student experimental set-up from Gdansk University [courtesy dr. Alicka]
    2. Gas discharge at intermediate pressure (a few Torr) - light strands
  • Bose-Einstein's condensation - three steps:
    1. Mexico top-spin on a flat dish (atom with non-zero spin trapped in a shallow magnetic trap)
    2. Laser cooling. A rubin sphere surrounded by polistyren spheres (Rb atom in optical "mollases") fot Kulka rubinowa
    3. Evaporative cooling (forced coolling of hot water cup - in B-E condensate this cooling is forced by a RF absorption, leading to anti-bonded Zeeman states)
    4. Magnetic trap from Trento University [courtesy dr L. Ricci] trap
  • General relativity theory:
    1. A baloon on a wire circle, with a mass in the center - bending of space-time near the "gravitational" mass
    2. Gravitational funnel (1/r2 field) vortex
    3. Non-Newton funnels (fields other than 1/r2) funnel fot Lejek 1fot Lejek 2
    4. Simulation of 1/rn gravitational fields [autore dott. Mauro Brunato, Trento University] zip Gravitacja
  • Particular relativity theory:
    1. Shooting of rubber balls againts a wall - in quiet and in movement (relativistic retard of moving clocks)
    2. "Smart car" - model (relativistic reduction of longitudinal dimensions) [courtesy Pawe³ Karwasz]
  • Quarks and leptons:
    1. Lepto - Greek coin of 1 cent, weigth 2,29 g lepto1 [thanks to Bank of Greece, Nafplio Branch]
    2. Copper disk, weigth 0,47 kg (lepton mu; )
    3. Copper disk, weight 7,8 kg (lepton tau;) tau
    4. Steel cubes 4,2 kg - proton (quarks uud), neutron (quarks udd), antyproton (anti-quarks uud) [projekt graficzny dr T.Wróblewski, realizacja M. Wróblewska i dr D.Pliszka] fot Proton fot Neutron

Elementary Particles

© Copyright 2003, G. P. Karwasz, T. Wróblewski, hypertext: E. Rajch, D. Pliszka

doc Post-scriptum

Fizyka dla każdego

© GK