On the track of Modern Physics - a virtual exhibition

In this fortnight we propose:

Officially, the date beginning the Modern Physics is Planck's lecture in Berlin in December 1900, in which "quants" of energy are nominated for the first time. Quants created new Physics areas, like quantum mechanics and electrodynamics and changed our view, not only on Physics but on the Philosophy of Knowledge, bringing also new revolutionary applications, like lasers. >>

Page in construction... Some parts still in Polish. We are sorry for this!

Please note: the form of this exhibition is "scherzo". Who does not like jokes, please read only texts written in "Courier" font
Comments, please sent to: zabawki@if.pap.edu.pl

Description notes

multimedia files

Elenco di poster

List of posters

Physics Areas

a-tom, or by Democritos in-divisible. Really? When "yes", when "no"?
A-tom, or in-dividual tajget

How to count atoms?

Atomic Force Microscopy

afm1 AFM - these are atoms on silicon surface
[Omicron NanoTechnology]
afm3 AFM - these are atoms on gold surface
[Omicron NanoTechnology]

afm2 The smalles inscription in the world (atom by atom)
[Omicron NanoTechnology]
afm4 Picture of tungsten needle in field emission microscope
[H. Haken i H.C. Wolf, Atomy i kwanty, PWN, 2002]

Avogadro and Maciej (by Adam Mickeiwicz)
Avogadro's number determination
How to measure atoms?

links, sources, photo, more

Spectroscopy or ghost science

It begun from Sun spectrum, and today we can say what was eaten and drunk on the funeral feast of King Midas
Widmo ci±głe ¶wiatła
                        białego Załamanie ¶wiatła na
                        diamencie Tęcza These are "spectra",
i.e. ghosts...
Zachόd słońca nad
                        miejscowo¶ci± Itea w Grecji u stόp Olimpu okladka-cd snieg

At the funeral feast of King Midas

How to weight an atom?

Mass spectroscopy

Mass spectrometer with magnetic deviation of Aston (1930)
. [Science Museum, Londyn]
aston-ne First observation of neon isotopes
[Aston 1920]
Spektrometr czasu przelotu Mass spectrometers in Slupsk
(more pictures

How does the laser work?tippetop

CO2 molecular laser laser [Science Museum, Londyn]
Laser ablation

How do the strawberies smell?straw

Proton transfer spectroscopy

How are you, Miss Orchidea?orchid

Photoacoustic spectoscopy

links, sources, photo, more

Invisible amber amber
Studied for years, but named "electron", i.e. amber, only by J.J. Thompson

Original Crooks' tubes for studies of cathodic rays deviation in a magnetic field
[Science Museum, Londyn]
Original Crooks' tubes for studies of cathodic rays
[Science Museum, Londyn]
Original vacuum diode of Flemming
[Science Museum, Londyn]

Rays from cathode

First (and the only ?) elementary particle
Measurements of electron charge
Electrons, DNA and the Evolution
Spectroscopy of electron collisions
Electron attachment in DNA
Capture a mosquito in flight atto-physics

links, sources, photo, more

Penetrating radation

Noticed casually, but studied on purpose by W. Röntgena, served to discover the DNA structure

First tubes for X-(Röntgen) rays
[Science Museum, Londyn]
Synchrotron - a modern source of X - rays
[DESY, Hamburg]
rontgen Early set-ups for Röntgen's rays
[Deutsche Museum, Monachium]

How DNA looks like? rna Sstructure of adenovirus RNA obtained by X-rays [Nature]

Super poisonbiałko Röntgen's rays in biology - structure of proteins [DESY, Hamburg]
X-ray defectoscopy
links, sources, photo, more

Quantum Mechanics
Hipothesis of "quants", introduced by Planck, was found useful by Einstein for explnation of the photoelectric effect and for studies of hydrogen spectra. Almost, almost, without wave machanics

Black-body emission spectrum (lamp filament at 3000 K) (more here)

Planck and unwilled quanta

Ships in a harbour photovoltaic

Franck-Hertz experiment

Spectrum of an "energy-saving" lamp - quantification of energy levels in atoms

Security of insecurity

links, sources, photo, more

Wave Mechanics

What a falling drop has in common with the electron capture in a muriatic acid?



Time evolution of electron capture by HCl ...

Bohr and (not) his postulates fala kolista A standing circular wave Hear it !

Can a witch pass a wall? quantum scattering
Quantum scattering

Can one see electron orbitals?orbitals

links, sources, photo, more

Idrogeno – una storia senza fine
The simplest atom, brought the most surprises in Physics

A Swiss teacherhydrogen-spectrum

Sommerfeld: relativistic classicist

Dirac: classical relativicist

A Small-Sheep Shift

Lamb's experiment
Quantum Electrodynamics

Atomic Physics in strong electromagnetic fields
[Gesselshaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt]

links, sources, photo, more

XX Century = Einstein's Century
Four manuscripts - from March 12th to September 1st. A miracle? An explosion? Plagiarism? Or happy marriage?

Albert and Mileva wedding

Four manuscripts that changed the world

A cow-boy from Strzelno

Ether wind

Postulates of relativity

Quicker but tighter

Einstein: "A pur si muove" gravit

links, sources, photo, more

Divide indivisible

In 1897, together with the "discovery" of electron, radioactivity emerges - atom has components!
Industrious PhD (she) student Future science candidates

Original instruments used by Joliot-Curie for artificial radiactivity studies
[Science Museum, Londyn]

Fortitous coincidence

rutherford Replica of Rutherford's apparatus with which he showed that alpha particles were helium nuclei. A copy made in Cambridge in 1998.
[Forum der Technic, Deutsche Museum, Monachium]

A particle from wax chadwick Original Chadwick's instruments for studies of neutrons [Deutsche Museum, Monachium]

Fermi and golden fishes

An expensive billiards wilson Wilson's chamber, for studies of particle paths [Science Museum, Londyn]

Faster and faster

Linear accelerators
Synchrotron in Trieste

First English synchrotron from Cambridge (1937)
[Science Museum, Londyn]

Pauli and n(o)eutrinos

Let's get to the islandwyspa Nuclear models

Does the world turn right? Celtycki kamien

How, on Tuesday, we broke the parity [A story by Leon Ledermann]

Does the world turn right (II)

links, sources, photo, more

Quarks and cheese
6 quarks in 3 colors, and anty-quarks, and gluons, and leptons: poor God is getting a headache!

"Tree quarks for Muster Mark"

Proton & Co. [note]


Quarks almost the same, but the smells different ! [note]


What mesons are? Charmionium chart D-charmed mesons

Hadrons in strong interactions [Gesselshaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt]

See quarks

A model of proton and neutron (metal cubes) show another feature of quarks:
there are inside, like two pictures on opposite walls,
but no one can get them out of the cubes .

Cheese in case-in quark

lepto Lights and heavies
Full center! - lepton tau taupair Lepton-tau story

What is leptons' mass?
What is quarks' mass?

Very heavy photonswtrack The first trace of W boson [CERN]

To fly, like higgs on LEP LHC Is this the first Higgs?

Cartesius' particles or Newton's fields ?

proton Beyond the Standard Model? standard

links, sources, photo, more

This and other (?) Worlds
And if we are more than "we" in the Universe? For sure, the dark mass dominates!

Other worlds

Black holes

Galaxy wind (UŁ Poland)new
A look back in time to the beginning of the Universe: more red the galaxy is, the elder its immage we get. [HUBBLESITE]
A strange star Crab's Nebula. krab [HUBBLESITE
links, sources, photo, more

Lonely Planet
How many planets are inhabited?
Probability calculations indicate: less than one!

Ziemia An Earth for men
Moon acrobat moon-acrobate

A double feather-blanket

Why does the CO2 molecule absorb heat ? co2-bug
links, sources, photo, more

From a diode and trans-resistor to Internet

i.e. this wonderful, solid body

SUPER conductorssahng

Semiconductors - i.e. Christmas discoveries

Tight warmness

links, sources, photo, more

In-dividual or uni-formed?

BEC or bock

How Bose-Einstein condensate grows? What does it serve for?

Experimental set-up for Bose-Einstein condensation
[Universita di Pisa].

links, sources, photo, more

List of experiments, models and instruments:

(as shown during the exhibition in Gdansk 15-19.09.2003, at Polish Physical Society Congress)
  • Atoms:
  • Perrin's experiments:
    1. Sedimentation - a model: a suspension of microcristaline quarz (determination of Avogadro's number)
    2. Diffusion of oleic acid drop on water surface (determination of atom diameter) [ringraziamento a Dott. Romano Cainelli]
    3. Brown's movements (a drop of ink from jet printer in water)
  • Electrons:
    1. A piece of amber (electrostatics)
    2. Positrons - similar to electrons positron but different positron-a
    3. Ramsauer's experiments (transmission of electrons in Xe-filled w lamp) [courtesy prof. W. Tomin] ramsauer
    4. Crooks' tubes [PAP]
    5. Measurement of e/m ration in magnetic field (PASCO) [courtesy dr B. Kusz]
    6. Drift chamber for low-energy electrons (Townsend's experiment) [courtesy dr. J. Mechlińska-Drewko ] drift
  • Quantum Mechanics:
    1. Planck's box (temperature of the "radiation field") planck
  • Wave Mechanics:
    1. Waves on a rope
    2. Standing waves inside the "singing" bowl [Educational Innovations inc.]wasa2 wasa
  • Laser:
    1. He-Ne laser tube
    2. Ligh interference sun glasses - interference mirror sunglass
    3. Singing tube, excited by gas flame [Educational Innovations inc.]
  • Symmetry CPT:
    1. Celtic stone
    2. Venetian gondola gondola
  • Franck-Hertz's experiment:
    1. Student experimental set-up from Gdansk University [courtesy dr. Alicka]
    2. Gas discharge at intermediate pressure (a few Torr) - light strands
  • Bose-Einstein's condensation - three steps:
    1. Mexico top-spin on a flat dish (atom with non-zero spin trapped in a shallow magnetic trap)
    2. Laser cooling. A rubin sphere surrounded by polistyren spheres (Rb atom in optical "mollases") fot Kulka rubinowa
    3. Evaporative cooling (forced coolling of hot water cup - in B-E condensate this cooling is forced by a RF absorption, leading to anti-bonded Zeeman states)
    4. Magnetic trap from Trento University [courtesy dr L. Ricci] trap
  • General relativity theory:
    1. A baloon on a wire circle, with a mass in the center - bending of space-time near the "gravitational" mass
    2. Gravitational funnel (1/r2 field) vortex
    3. Non-Newton funnels (fields other than 1/r2) funnel
    4. Simulation of 1/rn gravitational fields gravit [autore dott. Mauro Brunato, Trento University] zip Gravitation
  • Particular relativity theory:
    1. Shooting of rubber balls againts a wall - in quiet and in movement (relativistic retard of moving clocks)
    2. "Smart car" - model (relativistic reduction of longitudinal dimensions) [courtesy Paweł Karwasz]
  • Quarks and leptons:
    1. Lepto - Greek coin of 1 cent, weigth 2,29 g lepto1 [thanks to Bank of Greece, Nafplio Branch]
    2. Copper disk, weigth 0,47 kg (lepton mu; )
    3. Copper disk, weight 7,8 kg (lepton tau;) tau
    4. Steel cubes 4,2 kg - proton (quarks uud), neutron (quarks udd), antyproton (anti-quarks uud) [projekt graficzny dr T.Wróblewski, realizacja M. Wróblewska i dr D.Pliszka] fot Proton fot Neutron

Elementary Particles

© Copyright 2003, G. P. Karwasz, D.Pliszka, T. Wróblewski, hypertext: E. Rajch, D. Pliszka


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