Walk through Modern Physics Tracks


A-tom, or by Democritos in-divisible. Really? When "yes", when "no"?

A-tom, or in-dividual tajget

How to count atoms?



AFM - these are atoms on silicon surface
[Omicron NanoTechnology]

AFM - these are atoms on gold surface
[Omicron NanoTechnology]



The smallest inscription in the world (atom by atom)
[Omicron NanoTechnology]

Picture of tungsten needle in field emission microscope
[H. Haken i H.C. Wolf, Atomy i kwanty, PWN, 2002]

Avogadro and Maciej (by Adam Mickeiwicz)

Avogadro's number determination

How to measure atoms?

links, sources, photo, more

Spectroscopy or ghost science

It begun from Sun spectrum, and today we can say what was eaten and drunk on the funeral feast of King Midas
Widmo ciągłe światła białegoZałamanie światła na diamencie Tęcza

These are "spectra",
i.e. ghosts...

Zach?d słońca nad miejscowością Itea w Grecji u st?p Olimpuokladka-cd snieg

How to weight an atom?

Mass spectroscopy

Mass spectrometer with magnetic deviation of Aston (1930)
. [Science Museum, London]

aston-neFirst observation of neon isotopes
[Aston 1920]

Spektrometr czasu przelotuMass spectrometers in Slupsk
(more pictures

How does the laser work?tippetop

CO2 molecular laserlaser[Science Museum, London]

At the funeral feast of King Midas

How do the strawberries smell?straw

Proton transfer spectroscopy

How are you, Miss Orchid?orchid

Photoacoustic spectroscopy

The Terrific Seventh

links, sources, photo, more


Invisible amberamber

In his Nobel speech in 1906 JJ Thompson still used the name "corpuscles", not "electrons"

Original Crooks' tubes for studies of cathode rays deviation in a magnetic field[Science Museum, London]

Original Crooks' tubes for studies of cathode rays
[Science Museum, London]

Original vacuum diode of Flemming [Science Museum, London]

Rays from cathode

Electron microscope

First (and the only ?) elementary particle

Measurements of electron charge


Electrons, DNA and the Evolution

Electron attachment in DNA

An atom, but transparent, an electron, but wave

links, sources, photo, more

Penetrating radiation

Noticed casually, but studied on purpose by W. Roentgen, served to discover the DNA structure

First tubes for X-(Röntgen) rays
[Science Museum, London]

Synchrotron - a modern source of X - rays
[DESY, Hamburg]

Early set-ups for Röntgen's rays
[Deutsche Museum, Monachium]

How DNA looks like?rnaStructure of adenovirus RNA obtained by X-rays [Nature] 

Super poisonbiałko Röntgen's rays in biology - structure of proteins [DESY, Hamburg]

links, sources, photo, more

Quantum Mechanics

Hypothesis of "quanta", introduced by Planck, was found useful by Einstein for explanation of the photoelectric effect and for studies of hydrogen spectra. Almost, almost, without wave mechanics

Black-body emission spectrum (lamp filament at 3000 K) (more here)

Planck and unwilled quanta

Ships in a harbor photovoltaic

Franck-Hertz experiment

Spectrum of an "energy-saving" lamp - quantification of energy levels in atoms

Security of insecurity

When Bohr went skiing (Story by Werner Heisenberg)

links, sources, photo, more

Wave Mechanics

What a falling drop has in common with the electron capture in a muriatic acid?



Time evolution of electron capture by HCl ...

Bohr and (not) his postulates fala kolista A standing circular wave Hear it !

Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

Quantum scattering

Can one see electron orbitals?orbitals

links, sources, photo, more

Hydrogen - never-ending story

The simplest atom, brought the most surprises in Physics

A Swiss teacherhydrogen-spectrum

Sommerfeld: relativistic classicist

Dirac: classical relativist

A Small-Sheep Shift

Lamb's experiment

Crowded vacuum

Atomic Physics in strong electromagnetic fields
[Gesselshaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt]

links, sources, photo, more

XX Century = Einstein's Century

Four manuscripts - from March 12th to September 1st. A miracle? An explosion? Plagiarism? Or happy marriage?

Albert and Mileva wedding

Four manuscripts that changed the world

Photoelectric effect

Einstein's Explanation of Brownian Motion

A cow-boy from Strzelno

Ether wind

Postulates of relativity

Quicker but tighter

Faster but later

Time dilatation

An example of time dilatation

Einstein: "A pur si muove" gravit

Non-gravitational funnels

links, sources, photo, more


Divide indivisible

In 1897, together with the "discovery" of electron, radioactivity emerges - atom has components!

Industrious PhD (she) studentFuture science candidates

The Law of Radioactive Decay

Original instruments used by Joliot-Curie for artificial radioactivity studies
[Science Museum, London]

Fortuitous coincidence

rutherfordReplica of Rutherford's apparatus with which he showed that alpha particles were helium nuclei. A copy made in Cambridge in 1998.
[Forum der Technic, Deutsche Museum, Monachium]


A particle from wax chadwickOriginal Chadwick's instruments for studies of neutrons [Deutsche Museum, Monachium]

Whisky and water

Fermi and golden fishes

wilsonWilson's chamber, for studies of particle paths [Science Museum, London]

Faster and faster

Linear accelerators

Synchrotron in Trieste

First English synchrotron from Cambridge (1937)
[Science Museum, London]

Pauli and n(o)eutrinos

Let's get to the islandwyspaNuclear models

Does the world turn right? Celtycki kamien

How, on Tuesday, we broke the parity [A story by Leon Ledermann]

Does the world turn right (II)

links, sources, photo, more


Quarks and cheese

6 quarks in 3 colors, and anti-quarks, and gluons, and leptons: poor God is getting a headache!

"Three quarks for Muster Mark"

Proton & Co. [note]


  Quarks almost the same, but the smells different ! [note]


What mesons are?Charmionium chart D-charmed mesons

Hadrons in strong interactions [Gesselshaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt]

See quarks

4A model of proton and neutron (metal cubes) show another feature of quarks:
there are inside, like two pictures on opposite walls,
but no one can get them out of the cubes .

Cheese in case-inquark

lepto Lights and heavies

Full center! - lepton tau taupair

What is leptons' mass?

What is quarks' mass?

wtrack The first trace of W boson [CERN]

To fly, like higgs on LEPLHC Is this the first Higgs?

Cartesius' particles or Newton's fields ?

protonBeyond the Standard Model? standard

links, sources, photo, more

This and other (?) Worlds

And if we are more than "we" in the Universe? For sure, the dark mass dominates!

Other worlds

Radio astronomy

Black holes

Circling the Black Hole at the Photon Sphere

Galaxy wind (UŁ Poland)

A look back in time to the beginning of the Universe: more red the galaxy is, the elder its image we get. [HUBBLESITE]

Solar regatta


A strange star Crab's Nebula. krab [HUBBLESITE]

links, sources, photo, more

Lonely Planet

How many planets are inhabited?
Probability calculations indicate: less than one!

In some time, the Sun will become a red-giant and will burn-out all the life on Earth. But probably not before than five billion years from now on.

Ziemia An Earth for men

Moon acrobat moon-acrobate

Why the sky is blue?

A double feather-blanket

Why does the CO2 molecule absorb heat? co2-bug

links, sources, photo, more

From a diode and trans-resistor to Internet

i.e. this wonderful, solid body

SUPER conductorssahng

Semiconductors - i.e. Christmas discoveries

Tight warmness

links, sources, photo, more

In-dividual or uni-formed?

BEC or bock 

How Bose-Einstein condensate grows? What does it serve for?

Football and rugby

Experimental set-up for Bose-Einstein condensation
[Universita di Pisa].

links, sources, photo, more

Physics alive

Walking on the water

Magnetic turtles

links, sources, photo, more